The majority of SIA NIKSI COMPANY’s carriage is of packaged items conveyed on pallets.
While pallet sizes vary, each region has its own set of standard proportions. Europe utilizes Euro pallets measuring 120 cm x 80 cm, while China, Japan, and Australia utilize standard pallets measuring 110 cm x 110 cm, Finland utilizes Finnish pallets measuring 100 cm x 120 cm, and the United States utilizes two widely used standards measuring 101.6cm x 121.9cm and 106.7cm x 106.7cm.
The most widely used standard in Europe, denoted by the letters EUR, EUR1, is equivalent to ISO1 dimensions. Place 0.4 LDM in transport.
120 cm in length
80 cm in width
14.5 cm in height
Maximum weight of 25 kilogram
Up to 2490 kg capacity
It is frequently referred to as the 'English pallet' and is the second most widely used standard in Europe, covering 0.6 LDM of transport space.
120 cm in length
120 cm in width
14.4 cm in height
Maximum weight of 38 kg
Up to 2000 kg capacity
FINPAL is slightly larger and heavier than FINPAL, but is meant for lighter and larger goods, with a carrying capacity of 0.5 LDM.
120 cm in length
100 cm in width
14.4 cm in height
Maximum weight of 33 kilograms
Maximum load capacity of 1470 kg
The pallet's purpose is to facilitate loading and unloading and to secure the goods in place. If your cargo has non-standard dimensions, the pallet's size must also be compatible with the cargo.
Time and effort savings during loading and unloading. Loading a full container without pallets takes considerable time and requires a large number of load handlers, but a palleted load may be handled rapidly with a few workers and a forklift.
Protection while in transit. Correct load placement on pallets (boxes and bags are packed precisely on top of one another without extending beyond pallet edges) and meticulous fastening considerably reduce the danger of cargo damage and deformation during transit. Additionally, palletized goods is significantly more secure against tampering and theft.
Typically, disposable pallets are used once and then discarded or repurposed. Pallets that are reusable – can be reused several times without deteriorating their qualities. Pallets that are meant to last for an extended period of time.
In terms of the number of forklift notches
Pallets that can be lifted in two directions. Pallets that can be lifted in four directions. This technology significantly enhances freight loading safety by significantly minimizing the danger of cargo damage during the lifting and lowering of cargo.
Today, wood is the most often used material for pallet manufacturing. Wood pallets are simple to repair, eco-friendly, and reasonably priced. Plastic pallets are the second most prevalent form. Modern plastics are not only comparable to, but frequently superior to, wood in terms of quality: they are lighter but equally durable, easy to store, and do not decay or require special treatment. Metal pallets are extremely sturdy and have a long useful life. However, their utility is constrained by their heaviness. Combination materials – a material that combines the advantages of each of these kinds.
Single-deck pallets are used to transport a single item across a single pallet surface. Pallets with a double-deck configuration feature two levels: top and bottom. Additionally, these pallets offer significant space savings – cargo can be stored on two levels without risk of damage.
Additionally, there are customized pallets built for the transportation of precious, fragile, or non-standard items. Typically, these are ordinary pallets that have been reinforced with specialized pillars, trays, boxes, frames, corner profiles, and mesh walls. Rail freight also utilizes a range of specialized pallets, including flats, tilts, and bolsters (sometimes also road freight). These are enormous pallets the size of the cargo platform, fitted with cargo fittings. Pallets may have folding sides, drop ends, framed superstructures, or entire walls up to half the height of a normal container, depending on the type and intended usage.
by stacking – the cargo is held in place by its own weight (for example, gold bullion or bricks); by wrapping the pallet and the cargo in fastening slings (polymer, fabric, metal); by wrapping the pallet and the cargo in film
Because pallets are manufactured of various materials, the weight of the Euro-pallet is not standardised. With the exception of double-deck pallets weighing up to 40 kg, wooden Euro-pallets typically weigh 15-20 kg.
A load unit’s maximum height (the load plus the pallet) must not exceed 1,800 mm, and the load must not extend beyond the pallet borders by more than 20 mm. As a result, the maximum load unit dimensions for a pallet with 800 x 1,200 mm edges are 840 x 1,240 x 1,800 mm, whereas they are 1,040 x 1,240 x 1,800 mm for a pallet with 1,000 x 1,200 mm edges.
The number of load rows (levels) on a cargo pallet must be calculated ahead of time, taking into account the weight of each row, so that the top rows do not crush the lower ones. It’s also important to think about the load’s stability on the pallet. During loading and transport, a weight that is too heavy may overturn. Provisions for fastening should be made in the cargo compartment to transport tall freight units.
Let’s look at an example of a Euro-pallet: The dimensions are 800 mm long, 1,200 mm wide, and 145 mm tall (without cargo). The calculation is straightforward: 139,200,000 mm3 or 0.1392 m3 = 800 × 1,200 x 145 The following formula can be used to convert the volume of a pallet into cubic inches or feet: 4.92 cubic feet or 8,494.5 cubic inches
Cargo that does not extend past the pallet’s edges is referred to as a cargo unit or pallet position. The allowable ceiling height limits the height of a cargo unit.
Pallet layouts in containers and trailers are common.
By laying the long edge across the trailer, a regular 82-cubic-metre trailer can hold 33 Euro-pallets 32. (in pairs).
The capacity is 33 pallets when put with the short edge across (in triples).
12.8 m = 16 in pairs
11 in triples equals 13.2 m, which is the exact length of the trailer.
In containers and trailers, pallet layout is important. LDM
On a single level, a normal 20-foot container can hold 11 Euro-pallets.
On a single level, a normal 40-foot container can hold 25 Euro-pallets.
Pallet loading and transport safety requirements
Pallets should be loaded and unloaded in such a way that there is enough room for the forklift forks. Pallets can be flipped or broken if they are simply pushed.
Depending on the type of cargo and the conditions of transit, the cargo layout on the pallet should be chosen on a case-by-case basis. Oil barrels, for example, are only stacked on one level on the pallet, allowing more space to the pallet’s edge than typical. If these parameters are not met, the barrel walls are likely to grind against each other and rupture during transportation.
A skid, which has been employed in American manufacturing since the early twentieth century, is the forerunner of the modern pallet. It was a wooden platform with two boards attached to the underside. The design of these supports altered and improved as loading machinery progressed. Another platform was fastened to the boards in 1925, and the resulting cargo management device began to resemble pallets as we know them today. During World War II, palletized freight shipping grew dramatically, especially after the United States entered the conflict. The situation necessitated the shipment of massive amounts of military and humanitarian supplies around the world in a timely way, yet there was a scarcity of qualified people. Pallets allowed fewer cargo handlers to accomplish more work while also speeding up the turnover of items in warehouses and packhouses. Pallets were mostly employed in the Pacific, but the advantages of this style of packaging were recognized in Europe as well.
Most European Union countries require that wooden pallets shipped into their country be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate attesting to the fact that they have been treated phytologically. Pallets and fastening materials are marked with special markings after disinfection in accordance with Standard No. 15 – the registration number assigned by the national quarantine and phytosanitary service, as well as country codes and the method of disinfection designation (HT — heat treatment, KD — kiln-drying, MB — methyl bromide treatment).
New Euro-pallets can typically support 1,500 kg or even 2,000 kg of weight. Other considerations, however, should be considered as well. To begin, the vehicle’s maximum load capacity should never be exceeded. As a result, while loading a complete semitrailer with normal pallets, the maximum weight per pallet will be 800 kg (33 units). Second, most forklifts and cargo handling machines are incapable of moving weights weighing more than 1,800 kilograms.
The number of packages – COLLI, CMR – is frequently mentioned in international cargo documents, while TIR commonly uses the acronym CLL. Individual load unit (transport) positions refer to any cargo that may be loaded and unloaded in its entirety, such as boxes, bags, boxes, cans transported without pallets, and goods on pallets. If 5 pallets and 12 boxes are loaded into a container or semi-trailer, 17 colli (from French colis = box, parcel, unit, package) may be noted in the shipping documentation.
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